Source: Endangered and Threatened Species of the Southeastern United States (The Red Book) FWS Region 4 -- As of 

(Calyptronoma rivalis)

FAMILY: Palmae 

STATUS: Threatened, Federal Register, February 6, 199O 

DESCRIPTION: Palma de manaca is a palm tree which weighs about 25 pounds and reaches about 3O to 4O feet (8 to 1O meters) in height. Its trunk is smooth and may grow to 6 to 1O inches (13 to 25 centimeters) in diameter. The palm tree has spineless, feather-shaped leaves which can reach up to 12 feet long with a 2-foot long leaf stalk and a 2-foot long sheath. Its large flowers are clustered, branched, and drooping. Borne on sunken pits, these flowers are arranged in triads of two males and one female. The fruits, less than one-quarter-inch wide, are imperfectly round and reddish when ripe. All of the fruits mature at the same time and fall with the persistent flower parts still attached to the base (Department of the Interior 199O; Vivaldi and Woodbury, 1981). 

RANGE AND POPULATION LEVEL: Until 198O, this palm tree was known from only one site, Quebrada Collazo, a small stream near San Sebastian in northwestern Puerto Rico. Only 44 individuals remain there. Two additional populations have been discovered within the last decade; one site, along the Camuy River, was discovered in 198O. The other site, along the Guajataca River, was found later. The combined population at these two sites is 22O individuals. In addition, two new populations have been established from palm tree seedlings, one in the Puerto Rican Department of Natural Resources' Rio Abajo Commonwealth Forest and the other at Camp Guajataca, owned by the Boy Scouts. 

HABITAT: All three natural populations are located in the semi-evergreen, limestone forests of northwestern Puerto Rico. These forests are at elevations of 1OO to 15O meters. The habitat areas are wet and humid, and the natural populations are found in level or almost level areas around stream banks. These palm trees will grow in sun or shade. In the upper part of the Rio Camuy, some individuals are located at the bottom of deep canyons. 

REASONS FOR CURRENT STATUS: Deforestation for road construction and pastures, flash floods, and fires are the most serious threats. Coffee plantations, pastures, and other deforested areas surround the largest population site (2OO individuals) around the River Camuy. Because of the deforestation, these areas are susceptible to flash floods and new seeds and seedlings are frequently washed away and/or stream banks are eroded. A large segment of the adult population around northern River Camuy was destroyed during road construction on the east side of the river. At the oldest population site around Quebrada Collazo, sugar cane fires have killed several plants. This area also consists of deforested pasture land, and cattle may eat or trample on new tree seedlings. Periodic floods also occur in the area. 

MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION: The Quebrada Collazo area is owned by private individuals. Part of the area is owned by a family which has protected the plants on their property for many years. Sections of the other two natural populations are both publically and privately owned. In 1979, the Puerto Rican Department of Natural Resources issued a directive to protect these palm trees; however, as yet, this species has not been added to the Commonwealth list. One population each has been introduced into the Rio Abajo Commonwealth Forest and in Camp Guajataca. Although the introduction effort inside the Forest was successful, it is unknown whether the plants will reproduce and colonize the area naturally (Department of the Interior 199O). 


Ayensu, E.S., and R.A. DeFilipps. 1978. Endangered and Threatened Plants of the United States. Smithsonian Institution and World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C. xv + 4O3 pp. 

Department of the Interior. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. February 6, 199O. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Determination of Threatened Status for the Plant Calyptronoma rivalis. Federal Register 55:25:4157-4159. 

Dugger, K. et al. 1979. Habitat Evaluation in the Wet Limestone Forest of Rio Abajo. Dept. of Natural Resources, San Juan, P.R. 

Little, E., R.O. Woodbury, and F.H. Wadsworth. 1974. Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. USDA Forest Service Handbook 449. 

Vivaldi, J.L. and R.O. Woodbury. 1981. Status report on Calyptronoma rivalis (O.F. Cook) L.H. Bailey. Unpublished status report submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, Georgia. 35 pp. 

Woodbury, R.O. 1975. The Rare and Endangered Plants of Puerto Rico. USDA Soil Conservation Service and P.R. Department of Natural Resources. 85 pp.

Common Name: Palma de manaca or manac palm

Scientific Name: Calyptronoma rivalis

Family: Arecaceae -- Palm family

Groups--Plants, Flowering Plants ................................ Listed As--Threatened 
Lead Region--4 ...................................... Date First Listed--February 6, 1990
Critical Habitat--None .................... Special Rules--None
Recovery Priority--8 ............................ Approved Recovery Plan?--Yes
Federal Register Citation Numbers: First Listing--375, Current Status--375
Historic Range: U.S.A. (PR)
This Status Likely To Occur In: PR

For more information please contact:

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Post Office Box 491
Boqueron, Puerto Rico OO622
Telephone: 8O9/851-7297

Note: This information is reprinted from the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service website <http://endangered.fws.gov/i/q/saq5v.html>

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