Key to the species of Caryota
by Dr. William J. Hahn

1a. Petals purple to maroon; stamens 6-75 (90?); pericarp dark purple to black at maturity; mesocarp fleshy to juicy; pollen exine processes clavate.

Go to………………………………………………………….2.

1b. Petals yellow; stamens 75-110; pericarp red; mesocarp reddish; pollen processes spinose.

Go to………………………………………………………….8.

 

2a. Understory shrubs; stems solitary or usually clustered, 2-10 m tall, 1-20 cm dbh; petioles to 2m long at maturity; pinnules chartaceous, rachillae 1-60; lowland forests of Sulawesi and the Sunda Shelf.

Go to………………………………………………………….3.

2b. Understory to canopy or emergent trees; stems solitary, 8-25 m tall, 10-70 cm dbh; petioles to 60 cm at maturity; pinnules coriaceous, rachillae 20- >100; lowland to montane moist or wet forest east of the Sunda Shelf.

Go to…………………………………………...……………..5.

 

3a. Stems 2-10 m tall, 5-20 cm dbh; rachillae 10-60; staminate petals ca 3-5 mm wide; stamens 12-24; seeds 1 (very rarely 2) per fruit; fruit < 2 cm diameter; lowland moist to everwet forests; NE India?, Burma, Thailand, S China, Indochina, Malaysia, Greater Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, Palawan.

....................................................................................…C. mitis

3b. Stems to 3 m tall, 1-5 cm dbh; inflorescence spicate or with up to 20 rachillae; staminate petals 0.7-1.2 cm wide; stamens ca. 60-75 (90?); 2 seeds per fruit; fruit 2.0-4.0 cm diameter; pericarp thick, brownish purple at maturity; mesocarp fleshy, whitish.

Go to………………………………………………………….4.

 

4a. Stem seemingly absent to ca. 2.0 m tall, 1.0-4.0 cm dbh; inflorescence spicate; stamens 60-75; south China, north Vietnam.

..........................................................................C. monostachya

4b. Stem to 3.5-6.0 m tall, 2.0-5.0 cm dbh; inflorescence with 5-20 rachillae; stamens ca. 90?; central Vietnam.

................................................................…...........C. sympetala

 

5a. Stem 10-30 cm dbh; staminate petals ca. 2.0-3.0 mm wide; stamens 6-11; fruit ca. 1-1.5 cm diameter; 1 seed per fruit; Philippines.

.................................................................................C. cumingii

5b. Stem 20-80 cm dbh; staminate petals 4.0-8.0 mm wide; stamens 30-60; fruit 1.5- 3.0 cm diam; 1-2 seeds per fruit; Borneo, Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, NE Australia, Solomon Is.

Go to…………………………………………………………..6.

 

6a. Medium sized trees; stem to 20 m tall; leaves distributed in upper 1/2 to 1/3 of stem; rachis spreading to pendulous, pinnae pendulous; staminate petals 4.0-6.0 cm wide; fruit 2.0-3.0 cm diam; 1-2 seeds per fruit.

Go to…………………………………………………………..7.

6b. Very large trees; stem to 30 m tall, 80 cm dbh; leaves distributed in upper 1/4 of stem; rachis spreading,pinnae spreading to pendulous; fruit 2.0-3.0 cm diam; 2 seeds per fruit; lowland moist forest, Borneo.caryotaline.gif (15867 bytes)

….........................................................................................C. no

 

7a. India, Sri Lanka

…………………............................................................C. urens

7b. Philippines, Sulawesi, Moluccas, New Guinea, NE Australia, Solomon Is.

..…….....................................................................C. rumphiana

 

8a. Medium sized trees; stem cylindrical or ventricose; leaves distributed along upper 1/4-1/2 of stem; rachis spreading except at the tips where pendulous; secondary rachidae and pinnae pendulous; pinnules pendulous; stamens 65-155; fruits 1.4-2.0 cm long, 1.6-2.5 cm diameter; 1-2 seeds per fruit.

Go to…………………………………………………………..9.

8b. Very large trees, stem 20-40 m tall, 50-75 cm dbh; leaves tightly clustered in crown; rachis spreading to erect; secondary rachidae slightly arching; pinnules pendulous; fruits 2.0-2.9 cm long, 2.3-3.5 cm diam; usually 2 seeds per fruit; upland moist forest above 1500 m; N Thailand, Laos, S. China, Burma, NE India.

..…….....…..................................................................C. obtusa

 

9a. Stem 10-30 m tall, 20-65 cm dbh; stamens 80-155; fruit size; 1-2 seeds per fruit; upland moist forest above 1000m; NE India, Burma?, N Thailand, S China, Vietnam, Laos, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java.

……...........................................................................C. maxima

9b. Stem 10-20 m tall, 30-60 cm dbh; 68-97 stamens; fruits 1.4-1.7 cm long, 1.6-2.5 cm diam; 1-2 seeds per fruit; lowand forest on limestone, S China, N and central Vietnam, N Thailand

........……............................................................C. bacsonensis

William J. Hahn
Assistant Professor & Chair of the Palm Specialist Group for the IUCN Species Survival Commission
Center for Environmental Research and Conservation
Columbia University, 1200 Amsterdam Ave., MC 5557
New York, NY 10027

http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cerc/faculty/hahn.html

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